Anti-Doping Glossary



The Anti-Doping Administration and Management System (ADAMS) is a web-based database management tool for data entry, storage, sharing, and reporting of Doping Control related information. ADAMS enables Athletes to easily provide their whereabouts information, anti-doping organizations to organize and conduct in- and out-of-competition testing, laboratories to report analytical results, disciplinary bodies to report sanctions, the World Anti-Doping Agency to coordinate the anti-doping activities of anti-doping organizations in accordance with relevant data protection or privacy laws.

Additional Protocol to the Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention

The Additional Protocol entered into force on April 1, 2004. It reinforces the application of the convention by introducing a binding monitoring system. This is to ensure that doping controls by States Parties to the Convention is carried out on their territory on athletes originating from other States Parties to the Convention. It aims to discourage the conclusion of multiple bilateral agreements and to increase the effectiveness of anti-doping controls. This monitoring is carried out by an evaluation team, which can decide to organise a visit to any State Party, after reception of an evaluation report. The Protocol makes it an obligation for Parties to be available for evaluation, thus making the Anti-Doping Convention one of the few international conventions with a stringent control system.

Adverse Analytical Finding

A report from a laboratory or other entity approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency that, consistent with the International Standard for Laboratories and related technical documents, identifies in a sample the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers (including elevated quantities of endogenous substances) or evidence of the use of a prohibited method.

Anti-Doping Activities

Activities specified by the World Anti-Doping Code and the International Standards to be carried out by Anti-Doping Organizations, and their third-party agents, for the purpose of establishing whether anti-doping rule violations took place, including:

• collecting whereabouts information; • conducting testing • performing results management • determining whether an athlete’s use of a prohibited substance or method is strictly limited to legitimate and documented therapeutic purposes; • educating athletes and athlete support personnel on their rights and responsibilities; • conducting investigations into anti-doping rule violations and initiating legal proceedings against those who are alleged to have committed such a violation.

Anti-Doping Organization

Organization that is responsible for adopting rules for initiating, implementing or enforcing any part of the doping control process. This includes, for example, the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, other major event organizations that conduct testing at their events, the World Anti-Doping Agency, international sports federations, and national anti-doping organizations.

Anti-Doping Rule Violation

Determination that one of the following rule violations listed in the Regulations on Doping Control in Training and Competition Activities (or the World Anti-Doping Code or anti-doping rules that are in compliance with the World Anti-Doping Code) has occurred:

• the presence of a prohibited substance or its metabolites or markers in an athlete’s bodily specimen; • use or attempted use of a prohibited substance or a prohibited method; • refusing, or failing without compelling justification, to submit to sample collection after notification, as authorized in applicable anti-doping rules or otherwise evading sample collection; • violation of applicable requirements regarding athlete availability for out-of-competition testing, including failure to provide whereabouts information and missed tests which are declared based on rules which comply with the International Standard for Testing; • tampering, or attempting to tamper, with any part of doping control; • possession of prohibited substances and methods; • trafficking in any prohibited substance or prohibited method; • administration or attempted administration of a prohibited substanceor prohibited method to any athlete, or assisting, encouraging, aiding,abetting, covering up or any other type of complicity involving ananti-doping rule violation or any attempted violation.


Any person who participates in sport at the international level (as defined by each international federation), the national level (as defined by each national anti-doping organization, including but not limited to those persons in its registered testing pool), and any other competitor in sport who is otherwise subject to the jurisdiction of any signatory or other sports organization accepting the World Anti-Doping Code. All provisions of the World Anti-Doping Code, including, for example, testing and therapeutic use exemptions, must be applied to international- and national-level competitors.

Athlete Outreach

Program aiming at educating athletes about the dangers and consequences of doping, and their rights and responsibilities in the doping control process. The World Anti-Doping Agency’s Athlete Outreach Program was launched in 2001 and has been carried out at dozens of major multi-sports events. The Athlete Outreach Program recruits a team composed of anti-doping experts from around theworld to interact with participants to raise awareness about doping.

Athlete Support Personnel

Any coach, trainer, manager, agent, team staff, official, medical, paramedical personnel, parent or any other person working with, treating or assisting an athlete participating in or preparing for sports competition.

Athlete Whereabouts Information

Information provided by or on behalf of a limited number of top elite athletes about their location to the international sport federation or national anti-doping organization that included them in their respective registered testing pool as part of these top elite athletes’ anti-doping responsibilities. Whereabouts information details the athlete’s location on a daily basis in order to enable no advance notice testing.


Purposely engaging in conduct that constitutes a substantial step in a course of conduct planned to culminate in the commission of an anti-doping rule violation. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on an attempt to commit a violation if the person renounces the attempt prior to it being discovered by a third party not involved in the attempt.

Atypical Finding

A report from a laboratory or other entity approved by the World Anti-Doping Agency which requires further investigation as provided by the International Standard for Laboratories or related Technical Documents prior to the determination of an Adverse Analytical Finding.


Blood Collection Officer (BCO)

An official who is qualified to and has been authorized by an Anti-Doping Organization to collect a blood sample from an athlete.

Bulgarian Olympic Committee

The Bulgarian Olympic Committee (BOC) is a non-profit organization serving as the National Olympic Committee of Bulgaria.

Bulgarian Sports Arbitration with Bulgarian Olympic Committee

The national appellate body for decisions on anti-doping rule violations rendered by the Disciplinary Commission with the Bulgarian Olympic Committee.


Chain of Custody

Sequence of individuals or organizations who have the responsibility for a doping control sample, from the provision of the sample until the sample has been received by the laboratory for analysis.


Official who is trained and authorized by the anti-doping organization to carry out specific duties including one or more of the following: notification of the athlete selected for sample collection, accompanying and observing the athlete until arrival at the doping control station, and/or witnessing and verifying the provision of the sample where the training qualifies him/her to do so.

Copenhagen Declaration

The Copenhagen Declaration on Anti-Doping in Sport (Copenhagen Declaration) is a political document through which governments signal theirintention to adopt the World Anti-Doping Code through the UNESCO International Convention against Doping in Sport. The Copenhagen Declaration was finalized by governments at the second World Conference on Doping in Sport in Copenhagen in March 2003.

Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention

The Council of Europe Anti-Doping Convention is the first international legal reference instrument in the fight against doping. The Anti-Doping Convention was open for signature on November 16, 1989. It has so far been ratified by 51 states and is open to non-member states of the Council of Europe. The Convention sets a certain number of common standards and regulations requiring parties to adopt legislative, financial, technical, educational and other measures.

Court of Arbitration for Sport (CAS)

Institution which is independent of any sports organization and provides services in order to facilitate the settlement of sport-related disputes through arbitration or mediation by means of procedural rules adapted to the specific needs of the sports world. CAS is often referred to as “sport’s supreme court.” WADA has a right of appeal to CAS for doping cases under thejurisdiction of organizations that have implemented the World Anti-Doping Code.


Disciplinary Commission with Bulgarian Olympic Committee

The Disciplinary Commission with the Bulgarian Olympic Committee is the national authority responsible for conducting hearings on all matters related to anti-doping rule violations as well as for determining the type and the period of the sanctions.


Disqualification means that the athlete’s results in a particular competition or event are invalidated, with all resulting consequences including forfeiture of any medals, points and prizes.

Doping Control

All steps and processes from test distribution planning through to ultimate disposition of any appeal including all steps and processes in between such as provision of whereabouts information, sample collection and handling, laboratory analysis, therapeutic use exemptions, results management and hearings.

Doping Control Officer (DCO)

An official who has been trained and authorized by an Anti-Doping Organization with delegated responsibility for the on-site management of a sample collection session.

Doping Control Station

The location where a sample collection session is conducted.



A series of individual competitions conducted together under one ruling body (e.g., the Olympic Games, FIFA World Cup, or Commonwealth Games).

Event Period

The time between the beginning and end of an event, as established by its ruling body.


Filing Failure

A failure by the athlete (or by a third party to whom the athlete has delegated this task in accordance with applicable rules) to make an accurate and complete filing of whereabouts information.


No entries found.


No entries found.



“In-competition” means the period commencing twelve hours before a competition in which the Athlete is scheduled to participate through the end of such competition and the sample collection process related to such competition.

Independent Observer Program

A team of observers, under the supervision of the World Anti-Doping Agency, who observe and may provide guidance on the doping control process at certain events and report on their observations.


Athlete or other person is barred for a specified period of time from participating in any competition or other activity or funding (due to commission of an anti-doping rule violation).

Individual Sport

Any sport that is not a team sport.

International Event

An event where the International Olympic Committee, the International Paralympic Committee, an International Federation, a major event organization, or another international sport organization is the ruling body for the event or appoints the technical officials for the event.

International-Level Athlete

An athlete designated by one or more international federations as being within the Registered Testing Pool for an international federation.

International Federation (IF)

An international non-governmental organization administering one or more sports at world level.

International Standard

A standard adopted by the World Anti-Doping Agency in support of the World Anti-Doping Code. Compliance with an international standard (as opposed to another alternative standard, practice or procedure) is sufficient to conclude that the procedures addressed by the international standard were performed properly. International standards also include any technical documents issued pursuant to the international standard.


No entries found.


No entries found.


No entries found.


Major Event Organizations

The continental associations of national Olympic committees and other international multi-sport organizations that function as the ruling body for any continental, regional or other international event.


A compound, group of compounds or biological parameter(s) that indicates the use of a prohibited substance or prohibited method.


Any substance produced by a biotransformation process.


A natural person who has not reached the age of majority as established by the applicable laws of his or her country of residence.

Missed Test

A failure by an athlete who is included in a Registered Testing Pool to be available for testing at the location and time specified in the 60-minute time slot identified in his/her whereabouts filing.


National Anti-Doping Organization

The entity(ies) designated by each country as possessing the primary authority and responsibility to adopt and implement anti-doping rules, direct the collection of samples, the management of test results, and the conduct of hearings, all at the national level. This includes an entity which may be designated by multiple countries to serve as regional anti-doping organization for such countries. If this designation has not been made by the competent public authority(ies), the entity will be the country's national Olympic committee or its designee.

National Event

A sport event involving international- or national-level athletes that is not an international event.

National Federation

A national non-governmental organization administering one or more sports at a national level.

National Olympic Committee

The organization recognized by the International Olympic Committee. The term national Olympic committee shall also include the national sport confederation in those countries where the national sport confederation assumes typical national Olympic committee responsibilities in the anti-doping area.

No Advance Notice

A doping control which takes place with no advance warning to the athlete and where the athlete is continuously chaperoned from the moment of notification through sample provision.

No Fault or Negligence

The athlete's establishing that he or she did not know or suspect, and could not reasonably have known or suspected even with the exercise of utmost caution, that he or she had used or been administered the prohibited substance or prohibited method.

No Significant Fault or Negligence

An athlete's establishing that his or her fault or negligence, when viewed in the totality of the circumstances and taking into account the criteria for no fault or negligence, was not significant in relationship to the anti-doping rule violation.


Out-of-Competition Any doping control which is not in-competition.


Partial Sample

A urine sample whose volume is not suitable for analysis. The partial sample collection process is explained in detail in Annex F of the International Standard for Testing.

Participant (in Sport)

Any athlete or athlete support personnel.


The actual, physical possession, or the constructive possession (which will be found only if the person has exclusive control over the prohibited substance or prohibited method or the premises in which a prohibited substance or prohibited method exists); provided, however, that if the person does not have exclusive control over the prohibited substance or prohibited method or the premises in which a prohibited substance or prohibited method exists, constructive possession shall only be found if the person knew about the presence of the prohibited substance or prohibited method and intended to exercise control over it. Provided, however, there shall be no anti-doping rule violation based solely on possession if, prior to receiving notification of any kind that the person has committed an anti-doping rule violation, the person has taken concrete action demonstrating that the Person never intended to have possession and has renounced possession by explicitly declaring it to an anti-doping organization. Notwithstanding anything to the contrary in this definition, the purchase (including by any electronic or other means) of a prohibited substance or prohibited method constitutes possession by the person who makes the purchase.

Prohibited List

The list identifying the prohibited substances and prohibited methods.

Prohibited Method

Any method so described on the Prohibited List.

Prohibited Substance

Any substance so described on the Prohibited List.

Provisional Suspension

Means that an athlete or other person is barred temporarily from participating in any competition prior to the final decision at a hearing in relation to a doping case.


No entries found.


Random Selection

Selection of athletes for testing which is not target testing. Random selection may be: completely random (where no pre-determined criteria are considered, and athletes are chosen arbitrarily from a list or pool of athlete names); or weighted (where athletes are ranked using pre-determined criteria in order to increase or decrease the chances of selection).

Registered Testing Pool

The pool of top-level athletes established separately by each international federation and national anti-doping organization who are subject to both in-competition and out-of-competition testing as part of that international federation's or national anti-doping organization's test distribution plan. Each international federation shall publish a list which identifies those athletes included in its registered testing pool either by name or by clearly defined, specific criteria.



Any biological material collected for the purposes of doping control.

Sample Collection Session

All of the sequential activities that directly involve the athlete from notification until the athlete leaves the doping control station after having provided his/her sample/s.


Those entities signing the World Anti-Doping Code and agreeing to comply with the world Anti-Doping Code, including the International Olympic Committee, international federations, International Paralympic Committee, national Olympic committees, national Paralympic committees, major event organizations, national anti-Doping organizations, and the World Anti-Doping Agency.

Strict Liability Principle

The principle of strict liability means that an anti-doping rule violation occurs whenever a prohibited substance (or its metabolites or markers) is found in the bodily specimen of an athlete, whether or not the athlete intentionally or unintentionally used a prohibited substance or was negligent or otherwise at fault.

Substantial Assistance

An athlete or other person’s full disclosure in a signed written statement of all information that he/she possesses in relation to anti-doping rule violations, and full cooperation with the investigation and adjudication of any case related to that information, including, for example, presenting testimony at a hearing if requested to do so by an anti-doping organization or hearing panel. Further, the information provided must be credible and must comprise an important part of any case which is initiated or, if no case is initiated, must have provided a sufficient basis on which a case could have been brought.

Sample Collection Equipment

Containers or apparatus used to directly collect or hold the sample at any time during the sample collection process. Sample collection equipment will, as a minimum, consist of:

• for urine sample collection:

  • collection vessels for collecting the sample as it leaves the athlete’s body;
  • sealable and tamper-evident bottles and lids for securing the Sample;
  • partial Sample kit;

• for blood sample collection:

  • needles for collecting the sample;
  • blood tubes with sealable and tamper-evident devices for holding the sample.



Altering for an improper purpose or in an improper way; bringing improper influence to bear; interfering improperly; obstructing, misleading or engaging in any fraudulent conduct to alter results or prevent normal procedures from occurring; or providing fraudulent information to an anti-doping organization.

Target Testing

Selection of athletes for testing where specific athletes or groups of athletes are selected on a non-random basis for testing at a specified time.

Team Sport

A sport in which the substitution of players is permitted during a competition.


The parts of the doping control process involving test distribution planning, sample collection, sample handling, and sample transport to the laboratory.


Selling, giving, transporting, sending, delivering or distributing a prohibited substance or prohibited method (either physically or by any electronic or other means) by an athlete, athlete support personnel or any other person subject to the jurisdiction of an anti-doping organization to any third party; provided, however, this definition shall not include the actions of "bona fide" medical personnel involving a prohibited substance used for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes or other acceptable justification, and shall not include actions involving prohibited substances which are not prohibited in out-of-competition testing unless the circumstances as a whole demonstrate such prohibited substances are not intended for genuine and legal therapeutic purposes.


UNESCO Convention

The International Convention against Doping in Sport adopted by the 33rd session of the UNESCO General Conference on October 19, 2005 including any and all amendments adopted by the States Parties to the Convention and the Conference of Parties to the International Convention against Doping in Sport.


The utilization, application, ingestion, injection or consumption by any means whatsoever of any prohibited substance or prohibited method.


No entries found.


World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA)

The World Anti-Doping Agency is the international independent organization created in 1999 to promote, coordinate and monitor the fightagainst doping in sport in all its forms at the international level. The Agency is composed and funded equally by the Olympic movement and governments of the world. Its key activities include scientific research, education, out-of-competition testing, development of anti-doping capacities and monitoring of the World Anti-Doping Code.

World Anti-Doping Code

The core document that provides the framework for harmonized anti-doping policies, rules and regulations within sport organizations and among public authorities. It works in conjunction with five International Standards aimed at bringing harmonization among anti-doping organizations in various areas: testing, laboratories, Therapeutic Use Exemptions (TUEs), the List of Prohibited Substances and Methods, and for the protection of privacy and personal information.

WADA-Accredited Laboratory

An anti-doping laboratory accredited by the World Anti-Doping Agency in compliance with the International Standard for Laboratories, applying test methods and processes to provide evidentiary data for the detection and, if applicable, quantification of a threshold substance on the Prohibited List in urine and other biological samples. The World Anti-Doping Agency has been responsible for accrediting and re-accrediting anti-doping laboratories since 2004.

WADA Executive Committee

WADA’s ultimate policy-making body responsible for the management and running of the Agency, including the performance of activities and theadministration of assets.

WADA Foundation Board

WADA’s supreme decision-making and controlling body. It is composed equally of representatives from the Olympic Movement and governments.

WADA Working Committees

Advisory committees providing guidance for WADA’s programs in specific areas. WADA has four Working Committees: Athlete Committee; Health,Medical & Research Committee (and subcommittees: List, Therapeutic Use Exemption, Laboratory, and Gene Doping Panel); Education Committee; Finance & Administration Committee.


No entries found.


No entries found.


No entries found.